ALUNA – The Kogi’s Warning from the Heart of the World

There are certain books that, though they slip out of your possession, stay with you – keep on revolving in your thoughts for years after you’ve read them.

They are special as marker posts in your own story; precious for the timely alchemy they worked upon you when you first opened their pages. You never forget how something half-born in your awareness met, in those pages, a well-woven pattern already at work out there in the world, and discovered connection – began to grow. Such books opened things out, influenced evolving attitudes, taught something new, extended existing thoughts into new possibilities, and continued to echo through experience. Sooner or later, you itch to have them in your hands again – and they boomerang back to you; you seek them out.

There were many such influential, drift-away books during my teens and twenties, when, with discount book prices still undreamed of, and an income of church mouse proportions, I relied very heavily on local libraries. The reading diary I’ve kept for many years, tells me that I first read The Heart of the World by Alan Ereira back in the early 1990s.

I discovered it in a library-corner much haunted by me at the time – a section where Amazon explorers such as Benedict Allen rubbed shoulders with primatologists Jane Goodall and Dian Fossey, and the likes of Gerald Durrell and the nature writer Diane Ackerman, who watched The Moon by Whale Light

Back then, in the 1980s and early ‘90s – in the fall-out from what the botanist and ecologist Oliver Rackham called the ‘locust years’ – there was a sense of salvaging what was left of our countryside’s species-rich habitats. With the increasing value of precious margins and edges, the spirit and vitality of urban wildscapes began to be more recognised, and honoured, for their deep connection to wider wildlife systems, and to people. And, on a world-wide basis, conservation charities were moving away from single species focussed campaigns, to a more whole-ecology approach – and towards projects which aimed to bring involved communities into a solution equation, rather than one of fenced-off exclusion.

In the general culture of the time, a less anthropocentric, and more humans-as-part-of-nature, philosophy was slowly and gradually seeping from the fringes into mainstream consciousness. Green credentials, which previously, in the eyes of many, had labelled you as a bit of a lentil-munching crank (though, to be fair, I do love lentils…) gradually went so mainstream that such rarities as recycled toilet paper, and biodegradable washing up liquid, migrated from their niche market in back-street health food shops, to fashionable promotions in the big supermarkets. And, within the conservation movement, there was a growing sense that isolated pockets of nature reserves were not enough, we had to re-wild the wider land; join up our wild spaces – and our thinking. Something had to be done. We were waking up – but the pace had gathered, the destruction widened – and the locust years were not over…

From the Kentish woodlands and downs, where as a conservation volunteer, I saw the ever vigilant efforts to keep ecological threads held together, to the whirl of recycled paper through my letterbox, full of a litany of ravaged rainforests, mountains of elephant ivory, whales hunted for cooked up “scientific quotas,” roads built through ancient woodlands – the world was spiralling through loss, ‘sustainable’ was a new and hopeful mantra (its potential as a weasel word yet to be fully exploited) and environmentalists were grasping for measures that might prove to be the way to turn things around; that might appeal to a palatable sense of individual responsibility amongst the wider community. More people seemed to be listening. But increasingly, we realised that the change had to go much deeper. Were we going to alter our path; re-cast ourselves in an old, old story which, in the dimness of time, we once knew by heart? Or would we continue with this utilitarian sense of dominion – a story of self-destruction and disconnection? Would we – could we – be radical – or would we cling to the economic model of progress for a solution?

The Heart of the World documents the making of a film back in 1989, in which the Kogi Mamas, the ‘Elder Brother,’ wanted to issue a warning to us, ‘the Younger Brother,’ in a time of alarming environmental damage. They wanted us to hear, and take heed of, their story.

In the opening chapter of The Heart of the World, Alan Ereira writes:

For four centuries these people, the last surviving high civilisation of pre-conquest America, have watched in silence from their hidden world in the mountains of Colombia. They have kept their world alive and intact, and kept their distance. Now, in what they fear may be the closing days of life on earth, they have summoned us to listen.

The words of the Elder Brothers need to be taken seriously for a number of reasons… They offer us a way of understanding our own past, and insights into the real meaning and profundity of archaic religious thought.

But above all, we need to listen because of the importance of their message. The Elder Brothers believe that they are guardians of life on earth. They see the world as a single living being which they have to look after and care for. Their whole way of life is dedicated to nurturing the flora and fauna of the world; they are, in short, an ecological community whose morality is wholly concerned with the health of the planet. Now, the Elder Brothers have seen the changes start which mark the end of life. The world is beginning to die. They know that we are killing it. That is why the Elder Brothers have spoken. They wish to warn us, and to teach us…

…. We have to learn to understand the world in a different way. That is why they are desperately anxious for us to listen.

They say it is not yet too late. They also say that they will not speak again.’

That was back in 1989/90. A few weeks ago, when thoughts of the book were once more swirling around my mind, they were accompanied, this time, by a sudden sense that it was imperative I get hold of a copy again. I don’t know what suddenly prompted this feeling of urgency to have the book back in my hands, to search it down on the internet – but it seemed more than serendipity, when a few clicks of the mouse later, I was astonished to discover that Alan Ereira had just recently returned from another visit requested by the Kogi – and that the Kogi Mamas had made another film, Aluna – with a release date fast approaching!

The Kogi Mamas said they would not speak again. They want to be left alone by us. But they have been forced, through urgency and fear at what is happening to the earth, to leave their homeland in the Sierra Nevada, which they see as the vital Heart of the World – and which it is their work to keep in balance – to travel to meet the ‘Younger Brother’ and to get us to listen this time…

On the Aluna film facebook page, there is a fascinating video in which Alan Ereira gives a filming report shortly after returning from Colombia. He mentions the Kogi Mamas’ meetings with various scientists and how, when they met with an oceanographer, their conversation came to transcend any need for an interpreter, as they found they understood each other without translation; their insights, perceptions, apprehensions and knowledge were so in accord. And on the Aluna film website blog, there is a post by Richard Ellis, Steele Professor, about the ‘memorable occasion’ when he met with Mama Shibulata at the University of London Observatory. During the meeting, Mama Shibulata was shown a colour poster of the ‘Hubble Deep Field’ and, looking at it, seemingly unimpressed, he quickly and unexpectedly ‘out of several hundred sources… located one of only two foreground stars in our Milky Way,’ correctly identifying it as a star that couldn’t be seen by the naked eye, and declaring that its existence was known to him. In his blog post, Professor Ellis explains why this was such a remarkable and intriguing feat.

On their travels, the Kogi Mamas wanted to unwind gold thread between the places they visited, to show the interconnectedness of everything on the Earth; that the Earth is a living body and that damage to one part of it is damage to all of it.

At the heart of all this is Aluna – the first word the Kogi taught Alan Ereira – ‘The Mind’ – which he defines in his filming report video, as ‘…lines of thought that connect everything – thought, consciousness, aluna; the dark stuff on which the universe depends…’

‘In the beginning, there was blackness.
Only the sea.
In the beginning there was no sun, no moon, no people.
In the beginning there were no animals, no plants.
Only the sea.

The sea was the Mother.
The Mother was not people, she was not anything.
Nothing at all.
She was when she was, darkly.
She was memory and potential.
She was aluna.’

In The Heart of the World, Alan Ereira writes:

‘Since everything that happens is an event in the world of aluna, everything that happens also reflects that world. To put a question is an act in aluna, an act of pure thought, and if it is properly put then its answer is instantaneously present, here in the physical world as well….

….Our whole intellectual tradition, scientific, rational, seems to demand a rejection of aluna. But ours is a tradition which says there is only one ultimate test: not ‘does it make sense?’ but ‘does it work?’

Our scientific world-view had no trouble believing in aspirins and electricity because they worked, not because they made sense…. The question that confronts us is whether our view, that there is nothing beyond the biological and chemical machine, works. Up to now it has seemed to produce spectacular results. But the Kogi see these as short-term benefits on the way to a catastrophe. We are, to them, like people who have jumped off a mountain and, falling fast, are proclaiming our ability to fly. They believe they can see further, and that their own old-fashioned ideas will prove to be right. Unfortunately, they also believe that they are roped to us, and will shortly be yanked to destruction.’

True to my old ways, a couple of weeks ago during a regular library-haunting session, I discovered and borrowed a copy of James Lovelock’s The Revenge of Gaia: Why the Earth is Fighting Back – and How We Can Still Save Humanity, a 2006 follow-up to his famous 1972 Gaia Hypothesis.

I’m still only skimming the surface of the book, having got just a few chapters in, and I’m no scientific expert – but there seems to be much in Lovelock’s scientific theories and philosophy that can be seen to converge with what the Kogi are telling us, if from a different point of view, mind-set and tradition, and perhaps with a different idea of where to find the solutions. But, maybe that very difference makes the Kogi’s case even stronger; the convergences more convincing as evidence (in our evidence based culture) of our need to listen.

The sprinkling of quotes from The Revenge of Gaia below, reveal a tableau of shapes cast on the wall of history by shadow-puppeteers who thought they were in charge of the show. But it was a show of lights and mirrors; a story of illusion and forgetting… a story of progress, endless progress – an ignoring of cycles, and old wisdoms, that bring us back to ourselves and bare truth – to our limits, and our place in a web that also has its limits:

‘Scientists did not acknowledge the Earth as a self-regulating entity until the Amsterdam Declaration in 2001, and many of them still act as if our planet were a large public property that we own and share. They cling to their nineteenth- and twentieth-century view of the Earth that was taught at school and university, of a planet made of dead inert rock with abundant life aboard, passengers on a journey through space and time….

….even those who take a systems-science approach would be the first to admit that our understanding of the Earth system is not much better than a nineteenth-century physician’s understanding of a patient. But we are sufficiently aware of the physiology of the Earth to realize the severity of its illness… We are now approaching one of these tipping points, and our future is like that of passengers on a small pleasure boat sailing quietly above Niagara Falls, not knowing that the engines are about to fail.’
(P. 6-7)

‘We are so obsessed with the idea of progress and with the betterment of humanity that we regard retreat as a dirty word, something to be ashamed of… We are taking so much that [the Earth] is no longer able to sustain the familiar and comfortable world we have taken for granted. Now it is changing, according to its own internal rules, to a state where we are no longer welcome.

Humanity, wholly unprepared by its humanist traditions, faces its greatest trial.’
(P. 8-9)

‘The philosopher Mary Midgley, in her splendid books ‘Science and Poetry’ and ‘The Essential Mary Midgley,’ has warned that the dominance of atomistic and reductionist thinking in science during the past two centuries has led to a narrow parochial view of the Earth…. Reduction is the analytical dissection of a thing into its ultimate component parts, followed by regeneration through the reassembly of the parts; it certainly led to great triumphs in physics and biology during the past two centuries, but it is only now falling into its proper place as a part and not the whole of science. At last, but maybe too late, we begin to see that the top-down holistic view, which views a thing from outside and asks it questions while it works, is just as important as taking the thing to pieces and reconstituting it from the bottom up. This is especially true of living things, large systems and computers.’

I’m not sure what James Lovelock’s scientist’s scepticism would make of the concept of aluna – but here, he outlines what he means by his use of the term Gaia:

‘You will notice I am continuing to use the metaphor of ‘the living Earth’ for Gaia; but do not assume that I am thinking of the Earth as alive in a sentient way, or even alive like an animal or a bacterium….Metaphor is important because to deal with, understand, and even ameliorate the fix we are now in over global change requires us to know the true nature of the Earth and imagine it as the largest living thing in the solar system, not something inanimate like that disreputable contraption ‘spaceship Earth.’ Until this change of heart and mind happens we will not instinctively sense that we live on a live planet that can respond to the changes we make, either by cancelling the changes or by cancelling us. Unless we see the Earth as a planet that behaves as if it were alive, at least to the extent of regulating its climate and chemistry, we will lack the will to change our way of life and to understand that we have made it our greatest enemy.’

– All quotations from The Revenge of Gaia by James Lovelock (published by Penguin).

Now, in the 21st century, the story we’ve told ourselves for too long is collapsing. The merry-go-round is out of control. Can we stop it and get off? It seems more of an imperative than ever to listen to Ramon’s Speech in the video below, in which he outlines the message of the Kogi Mamas – a message that asks us to ‘hear the Mamas’ law and story; learn how things really are…’

The Mama says that it is very difficult for Younger Brother to hear and listen, and even harder to give up all that; but Younger Brother must be taught to listen to the history of the Mama, the law of the Mama, the beliefs of the Mama, and that if there is a scientist like the Mama who knows the earth – I do not know what sort, but who knows about the earth – let him study the earth to see, is it declining or not? Does the world grow weak? Why is it weak? Because they take out much of its life-blood, minerals, and the Mama is frightened, it makes him fearful. They say that Younger Brother is studying more, but he is studying to destroy the world, so the Mama is somewhat frightened and that is why the Mama says they must learn our history; they must listen to our story.’

The Heart of the World (P.215)

Aluna, the film, premieres today (15th June) and on Sunday 17th June at the Sheffield Doc/Fest (at which Aluna has been nominated for the Green Award). Details, and much more info and film clips etc. are on the Aluna Facebook page.

Further details of the film, video clips and a blog can be found on the Aluna the movie website.

The Tairona Heritage Trust website is also a mine of information.

NOTE – Alan Ereira’s book has been re-issued as The Elder Brothers’ Warning (I tracked down a second hand copy of the 1990 first edition with original title, pictured above, for sentimental reasons – it feels so good to have a familiar, drift-away friend back with me again…)


9 thoughts on “ALUNA – The Kogi’s Warning from the Heart of the World

  1. Sometimes it seems really a bit of a losing battle doesn’t it?
    I’m even thinking that I’m not sure to what extent good scientists can help change the situation when there is is always the question of politics, corruption, differing values, lack of education, starvation, disease etc. Sorry if that all sounds depressing. I don’t think we should ever give up though – I guess that’s the point, despite the fact that some of us either are unaware of or disdain a more holistic approach to life.

    • Hi Sonya – yes, the problems are so huge and complicated, it can seem totally overwhelming… There are so many ethical threads all knotted up and intertwined, so many people who lose out on even the most basics of life, whatever the decision that’s made. So many needs crying out to be answered – and, as you say, all the greed, politics, world-views, corruption, economic competition and don’t care attitudes – a whole minefield of issues – added into the mix. We’ve created such an imbalance in the world. But, yes, like you, I think the bottom line is to not give up; to keep aiming for something good… to make those little ripples in the pond which, if enough of us join in, might just add up to something bigger.

    • Thanks Diana – I heard James Lovelock being interviewed on The Life Scientific on Radio 4 very recently – but I’d not seen that article. Lovelock is certainly never one to shy away from controversy! But, I suppose, whether in agreement with him or not – he does tend to dig his toe at complacency and stir everyone into questioning – of each other and themselves and of general assumptions. The issues are caught in such a maelstrom of views, controversies and argued solutions. In the unfolding of environmental concerns over the last thirty years or so, there’s been such a complicated trajectory of entangled attitudes – generally the case in all aspects of life, really! Thanks again for the link!

      • On a general note, for all who are interested in following this, the article on Diana’s link above seems like a good springboard to add in some bits and pieces that I left out of my post – it was already getting too long, and I only know the bare bones of Lovelock’s outlook – but, expanding a little on the aspect of Lovelock’s ideas on where to find solutions – I think they would probably be just more of the same ‘Younger Brother’ attitude for the Kogi. As Alan Ereira writes in his book, the Kogi would see certain technological ‘fixes’ as further ‘products of the same attitude which has created the problem.’ The issues are hugely complex – but, happening to read the two books alongside each other, I was struck by how they drew together the diverging story of human attitude and relationship to the earth which is so fundamental to where we are now. The grass roots power of story and attitude seems such a vital part of the equation to me…

        Some other pertinent links:

        There’s an interesting article (another example of those complicated convergences and divergences) by Jonathon Porritt in Resurgence magazine (his speech at the Tagore Festival) which flags up his concerns about the eggs in just one basket empirical and ‘classic enlightenment’ approach – and the schism between that and our deeper relationship to the earth:

        And the Dark Mountain Project and its Uncivilisation Manifesto voices concerns very much at the heart of these issues – and our need to readdress our story and attitudes.

  2. I love the thinking ‘ourselves as part of earth’ rather than travellers on a lump of rock… and the idea that the earth could see us as no longer welcome, and change as a result. It’s oddly (wrongly?) heartening, that there is something more powerful still, when humans have such power of destruction and such arrogance.

    Reading this, and the comments, I kept thinking of an article I once read about Anglo Saxon beliefs in all things being connected like a spider’s web. I can’t find much when googling to support it, but I did come across this explanation on a site linked to Norse gods and pre-Christian spirituality. It echoes what Sonya highlights about any efforts to rebalance being subject to so many different forces, and also that any effort is a valid effort:

    “If we imagine the universe as a big spider’s web and imagine that each node where two strands meet represents an event (or a person or a life) we can visualise the interconnectedness of things. We can see how some things are directly connected whereas others are more distantly connected through a series of links. We can also see how nodes which are closely connected from one perspective (following a single strand from the centre outwards) can be distantly connected from another perspective (following the spiral that continually expands its radius as it moves from the centre). Furthermore, we can see that if we were to disturb any part of the web –say by blowing on it or shaking it, the entire thing would reverberate –though the parts closest to the disturbance would react the most strongly.

    With an understanding of wyrd comes a great responsibility. If we know that every action we take (or fail to take, for that matter) will have implications for our own future choices and for the future choices of others, we have an ethical obligation to think carefully about the possible consequences of everything we do.”

    Not meaning to sound pompous in adding this great chunk of text, but the post makes you think of falling off the merry-go-round, so thinking of affecting the web feels more positive!

    • Doesn’t sound pompous at all! It’s a great quote. Thanks for adding it. It echoes what I was trying to get across about the Kogi’s message, and what the study of ecology tells us – that everything is interconnected. Disturb one part and the rest is affected. Exactly like the analogy of the spider’s web.

      Now for some really long waffle (sorry – got lots of thoughts that have been churning round over recent days, and which need out!)…

      I think I’ve failed with this post actually – because I really wanted the focus to be on the Kogi and their message – and on what seems to be at the root of where we are now – attitude; the story we’ve been telling ourselves. The merry-go-round is the attitude that gets us further into destruction. What I was trying (badly) to say is, shouldn’t we want to start bringing that to a halt, get off it – and find a better way? To get back to that attitude that saw ourselves as part of the web of connection. The Kogi believe that we are on this earth to care for it, not exploit it or have dominion over it. Your quote taps into exactly what I was getting at – that humanity seems to have lost the awareness it once had (as per your Anglo Saxon example) that we are part of that great web of life – and we came to believe that we were above it, apart from it – something special and in charge. That the earth was here for us to exploit. This aspect of story and attitude was really at the heart of what I wanted to get across – because it seems to me such a baseline element of how we live – and how we might live in the future. It also seems to me a baseline for hope and change.

      Looking back on my post, I think I shouldn’t have added in the James Lovelock quotes – as they seem to have become the focus, and engendered a feeling of hopelessness in people who’ve read this post! And I wanted the Kogi, and a search for empowerment, to be the focus. The Kogi so deserve our attention and recognition. Their journey to give us their message is a huge, momentous event for them – of vital, urgent importance. I happened to be reading Lovelock’s book at the same time – and he was highlighting the attitude problem of western society, and it seemed to have a lot of relevance to what the Kogi’s message was drawing our attention to. And sadly, in our evidence based culture, it would be all too easy for their message to be dismissed without an offering up of the hard science behind it. As Lovelock points out, even with evidence, scientists, like everybody else, can get bound in attitudes that make accepting a change in thinking hard. I say a change in thinking, rather than new thinking – because I think that particular change would actually be a return to the best of older ways of thinking. Old wisdoms we’ve forgotten – and which we’re rediscovering in this modern age. I’ve not seen the Aluna film, but from what I can gather, Alan Ereira has tried to highlight the findings of western science that back up what the Kogi are saying. Western society can only be convinced with this sort of empirical evidence – and even then there will be the deniers!

      The other night, I watched a youtube video of the Q & A session after the premiere of Aluna – and the scientist that was present talked about the ecology of the planet – how all the web of connections work on massive, global scales. He talked about grim losses (the coral reefs are all but gone). But he also talked about what we can do – raise awareness. What I wanted to imply in the post was that maybe the hope is in that possibility of greater awareness and responsibility. In the wake of the epic failure of the Rio +20 sustainable development conference, where huge corporate business seems to have a merciless grip on all, determined to forge on with exploitation – it can feel like an overwhelming tide against the individual. But we can do something – each of us. If we did, it could add up to a lot. We have to cling to that hope, or else we’ll feel hopeless and do nothing. George Monbiot has written a piece in The Guardian which talks of his sadness and despair in the wake of Rio +20 (or Rio -20 as the environmental activist Vandana Shiva calls it) – but also talks of what we can do to re-wild our land and restore ecosystems.

      Very sorry to waffle on for so long, and to unleash all this here in response to your comment! Generally, in hindsight, during the time since I published the post, I’ve been feeling that it was a big failure in terms of what I really wanted to say. I think it meandered down the wrong route. In trying to present some nuggets of perspective that may be worth considering, things got over-shadowed! So I just wanted to try here to set a few things at least a little bit on my intended track. Didn’t want to make you feel that it was about a hopeless falling off a merry-go-round – I intended my post to be more about exploring how we might willingly get off the merry-go-round of a self destructive attitude. These are big and difficult issues; what I set out to say spun away from me amidst all the complexities, I think…

      • That key point from the Kogi certainly came across loud and clear: my error of communication in saying it felt like we’re falling off the merry-go-round (I had day-dreamed into thinking of the spinning earth as the merry-go-round, throwing us off the horses into the ether… merry-go-rounds and horses always get my imagination!) rather than following the symbol of the merry-go-round as our attitude!

        Primarily I was thinking of the positive (we are part of the earth, not on a bus somewhere else) and in a way that I really felt I was seeing the idea of connectedness again, in that you removed the familiarity of the ‘we’re part of nature’ message – the Kogi angle made it ‘new’ and re-instated – so valuable when we’re talking about changing perception (and all the oblivious voices in that big,complicated web we’ve created).

        • Many thanks for that – so great about the positives, and that the Kogi angle refreshed, ‘re-instated and made new’ the humans-as-part-of-nature message. Sorry to land you with all the thought-baggage above. I’d been very unsure (when writing the post and after I’d published it) whether I’d muddied the waters with too much extra stuff. As literary study makes us acutely aware, the nature of language is so slippery – the ability to fully express what we mean so hard, the very nature of life, and its complexities, so elusive, it can never fully be captured in words. So many gaps to fall down – including crossed metaphors about merry-go-rounds! 🙂

          I love hearing about people’s daydreams and thought-connections. Horses capture my imagination too – I’ve always loved them (even on the occasions when they stood on my feet – ouch!) Interesting what images the Lovelock quotes conjured up. I must admit, I was a bit twitchy about including the James Lovelock angle – he’s a tricky one to bring in to stuff like this. He dislikes any hints of spiritual stuff getting tangled with his concept of Gaia, and he’s part of a complex dispute amongst environmentalists. But, reading his book, I found a lot of his holistic concepts refreshing, as some scientists (I dare not mention names – it tends to bring hordes of their baying supporters wanting to slay you with their ‘science is the one and only way to understand life’ mentality) are so uber-reductionist. I’m married to a scientist – and he feels acutely embarrassed by that attitude amongst some of his peers, and how they forget science is a tool with its own limitations – and don’t realise the damage their intolerance does to people’s image of science. Anyway, back to being part of the whole web, and intriguing, fresh perspectives on that – in his book, Lovelock discusses the idea that when we pee, we might be demonstrating an alturistic evolution that may have developed as part of ‘Gaia, the great earth system’ rather than evolution led by genes alone. A truly interesting and aptly earthy thought! And with that, I shall stop waffling now!

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